**Altman Z Score**

The Altman Z score determines the chances of bankruptcy for a company. Typically a lower, or declining, score indicates a higher risk of bankruptcy.

We show the Altman Z Score using the average stock information for a period data-field.

The example below shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of January 28, 2022.

**Beta**

Beta is a measurement of the sensitivity of a company stock price to the overall fluctuation of a given benchmark index. Betas are levered, unadjusted and derived from a least squares regression analysis using stock and benchmark index returns based on a monthly or weekly frequency. Beta in the watchlist and screener is calculated using 60 monthly returns (each as of month end) but if the company trading history is too short to provide such a sample, fewer than 60 but not fewer than 24 monthly returns are used to run the regression.

The benchmarks are the S&P 500 for all U.S. stocks, the S&P/TSX Composite for all Canadian stocks, the MSCI EAFE for all developed market stocks in Europe, Australasia, and the Far East, and the MSCI Emerging Markets for all other international stocks.

If you want to graph Beta for a particular stock, you can use the **G chart** on Koyfin. The default window in the chart is 1 year (252 days), and you can specify this value in the Beta settings.

**Book Value / Share**

Book Value / Share is a ratio calculated using the following formula:**Book Value** **/** **Share** = Total Common Equity / Total Shares Out. on Balance Sheet Date

The example below is for Apple Inc. as of September 25, 2021.

**Buyback Yield %**

Buyback Yield % is the repurchase of outstanding shares over the existing market cap of a company. It is calculated using the formula:**Buyback Yield % = ((Issuance of Common Stock + Repurchase of Common Stock) / Latest Market Cap)**

You can visualize the Buyback Yield % of a company on the **G chart**. For example, the graph below shows the Issuance of Common Stock, Repurchase of Common Stock, Latest Market Cap, and Buyback Yield for Apple Inc.

**Cash Income Tax Paid (Refund)**

Cash Income Tax Paid (Refund) represents cash used for income tax payments or cash received from income tax refunds. This line item is usually reported in the supplemental section of the cash flow statement.

This item includes:

• Cash paid during the year for income tax

• Income tax, net of refund

• Cash paid (received) for income tax

This item excludes:

• Payment for taxes other than income tax

• Tax benefit from exercise of stock options

• Increase (decrease) in income tax payable

The example below is for Apple Inc. as of September 30, 2023.

**Change in Net Working Capital**

Change in Net Working Capital is a line item comprised of the following components:

• Net Working Capital (t)

• Net Working Capital (t-1)

Note: Depending on the type of the financial period ending on (t), (t-1) may reflect the period end date of the previous quarter, the previous fiscal year, or the period end date immediately preceding a year-to-date period ending on (t).

The following example shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of September 30, 2023.

**Cost of Borrowings %**

Cost of Borrowings % provides an estimate of the company's cost of borrowing based on the interest expense charged and the average debt balance over a particular period. This line item is calculated using the following formula:

**Cost of Borrowings % = ((Interest Capitalized )+ (Interest Expense, Total * -1)) / ((Total Debt (excl. Fin. Div. Debt) (t) + Total Debt (excl. Fin. Div. Debt) (t-1)) / 2)**

Note: Depending on the type of the financial period ending on (t), (t-1) may reflect the period end date of the previous quarter, the previous fiscal year, or the period end date immediately preceding a year-to-date period ending on (t).

The example below is for Apple Inc. as of September 30, 2023.

**Debt Equivalent Operating Leases**

Debt Equivalent Operating Leases represent the amount of additional capital leases on the company's balance sheet if all operating leases were capitalized. This item is calculated using the following formula:

**Debt Equivalent Operating Leases = Net Rental Expense, Total * 8**

The example below shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of September 30, 2023.

**Debt Paydown Yield %**

Debt Paydown Yield % is equal to the net change in long-term debt over the trailing twelve months period divided by the company's market capitalization. It is calculated using the following formula:**Debt Paydown Yield % = ((Total Debt Issued - Total Debt Repaid) / Latest Market Cap) **

You can find the Debt Paydown Yield % for a company on the **Dividend Snapshot** page.

**Diluted EPS - Continuing Operations**

This is the most common EPS value used by investors which excludes extraordinary items.

This is a GAAP EPS value and includes options expenses and other accounting adjustments. It is calculated using the following formula:

Diluted EPS Continuing Operations = Diluted Net income / Diluted Weighted Average Shares Outstanding

The example below shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of September 24, 2022.

**Dividend Yield %**

We use the following formula to calculate the Dividend Yield %:

Dividend Yield % = (Dividend amount / Last Price)

There are four types of Dividend Yield %:

**Indicated (IND)**— the annualized dividend yield based on the latest dividend payment.**Trailing-twelve-months (TTM)**— the dividend yield based on the latest 12 months of dividends, including special dividends.**Last-twelve-months (LTM)**— the dividend yield based on the latest 12 months of dividends, excluding special dividends.**Next-twelve-months (NTM)**— the dividend yield based on the consensus mean forward 12 months of dividends.

Here's an example **graph** of the different types of Dividend Yield % for Apple Inc.

**EBIT **

EBIT is Earnings before interest and taxes, and is equal to Operating Income.

The example below shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of September 25, 2021.

**EBITDA**

EBITDA, or Earnings before interest expense, taxes, depreciation and amortization, is a financial metric used to evaluate a company's profitability.

Starting in 2019, EBITDA was adjusted for leases as per FASB rules. For more information on this topic, please refer to **this article**. The example below shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of September 25, 2021.

**EBITDA / Interest Expense **

The interest coverage ratio shows the ability of a firm to meet its interest expenses.

The example below is for Apple Inc. as of September 24, 2022.

**Effective Tax Rate - (Ratio)**

Effective Tax Rate - (Ratio) is calculated using the following formula:

**Effective Tax Rate - (Ratio) = Income Tax Expense / EBT, Inc. Unusual Items**

The example below shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of September 30, 2023.

**Enterprise Value **

Filing Date Total Enterprise Value represents the cash-less value of a firm as an asset as of the filing date of the balance sheet period end date.

To calculate the Filing Date Market Capitalization, we use the following formula:

**Filing Date MarketCap = Book Value of Total Debt + Book Value of Preferred Stock + Book Value of Minority Interest - Cash & Short Term Investments**

The example below is for Apple Inc. as of May 3, 2023.

**EV / EBIT**

To calculate the EV / EBIT ratio, we use the following formula:

**EV / EBIT = Last Close Total Enterprise Value / EBIT (including equity income from affiliates)**

The following example shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of August 6, 2024.

**EV / EBITDA**

We use the following formula to calculate the EV / EBITDA ratio:**EV / EBITDA = Last Close Total Enterprise Value / EBITDA (including equity from affiliates and adjusted for lease expenses)**

The example below shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of November 11, 2021.

**EV / Sales**

The EV / Sales ratio is calculated by using the following formula:**EV / Sales = Last Close Total Enterprise Value / Total Revenues**

The example below is for Apple Inc. as of August 6, 2024.

**Free Cash Flow**

The formula for Free Cash Flow is **FCF = Cash Flow from Operations - Capex**.

You can visualize the Free Cash Flow of a company using the **G chart**.

**Free Cash Flow / EV Yield % **

To calculate the Free Cash Flow / EV Yield %, we use the following formula:**FCF / EV Yield % = FCF / EV**

You can view a **graph** of Apple Inc.'s Free Cash Flow / EV Yield % over the past 5 years on Koyfin.

**Free Cash Flow / Market Cap Yield %**

We calculate the Free Cash Flow / Market Cap Yield % using the following formula:**Free Cash Flow / Market Cap Yield % = ((Cash from Operations) - (CAPEX))/ Market Cap * 100**

You can view a **graph** of Apple Inc.'s Free Cash Flow / Market Cap Yield % over the past 10 years on Koyfin.

**Free Cash Flow per Share**

We calculate Free Cash Flow per Share ourselves using Free Cash Flow / Shares Outstanding.

You can see how Apple Inc. has performed over the past 10 years by looking at the Free Cash Flow per Share of AAPL in the **G chart**.

**Gross Profit **

We use the following formula to calculate Gross Profit:**Gross Profit = Total Revenues - Cost of Revenues**

The example below is for Apple Inc. as of September 24, 2022.

**Gross Profit Margin %**

Gross Profit Margin % is calculated by dividing the gross profit by the total revenues and expressed as a percentage. The formula for calculating Gross Profit Margin % is as follows:**Gross Profit Margin % = Gross Profit / Total Revenues**

The example below shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of September 24, 2022.

**Gross Profit / EV Yield %**

To calculate the Gross Profit / EV Yield %, we use the following formula:

**Gross Profit / EV Yield % = Gross Profit LTM / Enterprise Value * 100**

You can visualize the Gross Profit / EV Yield % of a company on the **G chart**.

**Gross Profit / Market Cap Yield %**

We use the following formula to calculate the Gross Profit / Market Cap Yield %:

**Gross Profit / Market Cap Yield % = Gross Profit LTM / Market Cap * 100**

To visualize the Gross Profit / Market Cap Yield % of a company, you can refer to the **G chart**.

**Inventory**

Inventory is a line item that includes the following components:

• Inventories - Raw Materials

• Inventories - Work In Process

• Inventories - Finished Goods

• Inventories - Progress Payments and Others

• Other Real Estate Owned And Foreclosed

• LIFO Reserve

• Allowance for Inventory (BS)

• Advances for Supplies

The line item includes:

• Inventory

• Supplies

• Parts, spares and sub-assemblies

• Merchandise inventories

• Packing materials

• Tubular goods

• Customer service parts and equipment

• Other items qualified as inventory with regard to the nature of business of the company such as residential homes and land, securities, timber or lumber, crude oil, fuel and petroleum products etc.

The following rules apply:

• Prepayments or advances or any other line item given under the Inventory heading is categorized as Inventory.

• If Work-In-Progress appears as a separate line item, then this item is searched in the notes. If attributable profit is included, then it is categorized as Accounts Receivable, otherwise it is categorized as Inventory.

The following rules apply for investment properties and properties under development:

• In the case of Real Estate companies reporting both Properties for Sale and Rentals it is categorized as Inventory/Other Long Term Assets. If attributable profit is included, it is categorized as Accounts Receivable/Accounts Receivable Long Term.

• In the case of Real Estate Operations having only a Property sales business, then it is categorized as Inventory/Other Long Term Assets.

• In the case of Real Estate Operations having only a Rental business then this is categorized as Other Current Assets/Property Plant and Equipment.

• In the case of other businesses it is categorized as Other Current Assets/Other Long Term Assets.

**Inventory Turnover**

The formula for calculating Inventory Turnover is as follows:

**Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold, Total / ((Inventory (t) + Inventory (t-1)) / 2)**

Below is an example showing the calculation for Apple Inc. as of September 30, 2023.

**Invested Capital**

The formula we use to calculate Invested Capital is: **Invested Capital = (Long-Term Debt + Short-Term Debt + Shareholder Equity + Current Leases + Long-Term Leases) **

It doesn't adjust for serial asset write-offs.

The **G chart** allows you to visualize Invested Capital.

**Investment in Government Securities**

Investment in Government Securities represents investments in negotiable securities issued by national government institutions and includes treasury bills, notes, and bonds.

This item includes:

• U.S. Government and agency securities

• Foreign government securities

• Federal agency securities

This item excludes:

• State and municipal

• U.S. Government mortgage backed securities

The example below is for Bank of America Corporation as of December 31, 2023.

**Investment in Marketable and Equity Securities**

Investment in Marketable and Equity Securities is a line item that consists of the following components:

• Investment in Joint Ventures, Affiliates & Partnerships

• Decrease (Increase) in Marketable Securities

• Investments in Marketable and Equity Securities

• Maturity of Debt Securities

• Cash Investment in Debt Securities

• Maturity of Preferred Securities

• Cash Investment in Preferred Securities

• Maturity of Equity Securities

• Cash Investment in Equity Securities

• Maturity of Other Investments

• Purchase/Sale-Other Investments

This line item excludes:

• Sale/purchase of restricted investments

• Acquisition/disposal of subsidiaries or change in holding in subsidiaries

The example below shows the calculation for Bank of America Corporation as of September 30, 2023.

**Investment in Securities**

Investment in Securities is a line item that represents the residual category of investments made by the bank.

This item includes:

• Securities available for sale, at fair value

• Investments in unconsolidated affiliates

• Held-to-maturity securities

• Corporate bonds

• Equity securities

This data item excludes:

• U.S. Government and agency securities

• FNMA mortgage-backed securities

• Mortgage-backed securities

• State and municipal

The example below is for Bank of America Corporation as of December 31, 2023.

**Investment Securities, Total**

Investment Securities, Total is a line item for banks with the following components:

• Deposits at Interest in Securities

• Investment in Government Securities

• Investment in Securities

• Investment in Municipal Securities

• Securities Purchased Under Agreements to Resell

• Equity Method Investments

The example below is for Bank of America Corporation as of December 31, 2023.

**Long-Term Debt / Equity**

We use the following formula to calculate the Long-Term Debt / Equity ratio:

**Long-Term Debt / Equity = (Finance Division Debt Non-Current + Long-Term Debt + Long-Term Leases) / Total Equity**

The example below shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of September 30, 2023.

**Long-Term Leases**

Long-Term Leases is a line item that represents the sum of the following components:

• Finance Leases, Long Term

• Long Term Portion of Operating Lease Liabilities

The example below is for Apple Inc. as of September 30, 2023.

**Net Debt**

Net Debt is a financial metric that measures a company's debt obligations after taking into account its available cash and short-term investments.

Net Debt comprises the following components:

• Total Cash & Short-term Investments

• Long Term Marketable Securities

The following example shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of September 24, 2022.

**Net Property, Plant and Equipment**

Net Property, Plant and Equipment is a line item that includes the following components:

• Gross Property Plant And Equipment

• Accumulated Depreciation

• Right-of-Use Assets - Gross

• Right-of-Use Assets - Operating Lease - Gross

• Right-of-Use Assets - Capital Lease - Gross

• Right-of-Use Assets - Accumulated Depreciation

• Right-of-Use Assets - Capital Lease - Accumulated Depreciation

• Right-of-Use Assets - Operating Lease - Accumulated Depreciation

Note: In the cases where a breakdown of Net Property into Gross and Accumulated Depreciation is not reported the following Net Values are collected directly:

• Net PP&E

• Right-of-Use Assets – Net

• Right-of-Use Assets - Capital Lease – Net

• Right-of-Use Assets - Operating Lease – Net

The following example illustrates the calculation for Apple Inc. as of September 30, 2023.

**Net Working Capital **

Net Working Capital is a financial metric that represents the difference between a company's current assets and its current liabilities. It serves as an indicator of a company's short-term liquidity and operational efficiency, reflecting its ability to cover short-term obligations using readily available resources.

The example below is for Apple Inc. as of September 24, 2022.

**Normalized Net Income**

Normalized Net Income is calculated using the following formula:**Normalized Net Income = EBT (Excluding Unusual Items) * (1 - Statutory Tax Rate) + Minority Interest in Earnings**

Note: We assume a statutory tax rate of 37.5% for all companies.

The example below illustrates the calculation for Apple Inc. as of September 30, 2023.

**Operating Income**

Operating income is a line item that consists of the following components:

• Total Revenues

• Total Operating Expenses

The example below shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of September 30, 2023.

**Other Current Assets, Total**

Other Current Assets, Total is a line item that includes the following components:

• Accrued Interest Receivable

• Accrued Investment Income

• Customer Acceptance

• Assets of Discontinued Operations Current

• Derivative Assets Current

• Deferred Charges Current

• Film Contract and Broadcasting Rights Current

• Reinsurance Recoverable - Current

• Other Current Assets - (Collected)

• Restricted Investments - Current

If you wish to graph Other Current Assets, Total for a particular stock, you can use the **G chart** on Koyfin.

**Payout Ratio**

The Payout Ratio is calculated using the following formula:**Payout Ratio = Common & Preferred Stock Dividends Paid / Net Income **

The example below is for Apple Inc. as of September 24, 2022.

**Prepaid Expenses**

Prepaid Expenses represents amounts paid to other parties for services to be rendered in the future. They expire and become expenses with the passage of time, usage or events, e.g., prepaid rent, prepaid insurance, etc. Prepaid Expenses are assets created by the prepayment of cash or incurrence of a liability.

This item includes:

• Prepaid insurance

• Prepaid expenses

• Prepaid taxes

• Prepayments

This item excludes:

• Prepayments to suppliers

• Compensation related, pension related, and employee benefit related line items such as prepaid pension and prepaid compensation.

The example below is for Apple Inc. as of January 28, 2024.

**Price / Earnings to Growth (PEG) (NTM)**

We use the following formula to calculate the Price / Earnings to Growth (PEG) ratio:

**Price / Earnings to Growth (PEG) = P/E (LTM) / EPS Estimate 5Y Growth Rate (NTM)**

**Price / Earnings (LTM)**

We use the following formula to calculate the Price / Earnings (LTM) ratio:**Price / Earnings (LTM) = Stock Price / Diluted EPS before extra**

The EPS used in this calculation is a GAAP value reported by the company.

The example below is for Apple Inc. as of March 9, 2023.

**Price / Earnings (NTM)**

To calculate the Price / Earnings (NTM) ratio, we use the following formula:**Price / Earnings (NTM) = Stock Price / NTM EPS Mean Estimate **

The EPS used in this calculation is Pro Forma and excludes certain accounting expenses like options.

The following example shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of March 9, 2023.

**Price / Book**

We use the following formula to calculate the Price / Book ratio:

**Price / Book Value = Closing Share Price / Book Value Per Share**

The example below shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of August 6, 2024.

**Price / Free Cash Flow**

To calculate the Price/Free Cash Flow ratio, we use the following formula:**Price/Free Cash Flow = Market Cap / ((Cash from Operations) - (CAPEX))**

You can view a **graph** of Apple Inc.'s Price/Free Cash Flow on Koyfin.

**Price / Gross Profit**

We use this formula to calculate the Price / Gross Profit ratio:**Price / Gross Profit = Market Cap / Gross Profit**

Below is an example of a **graph** showing the Price / Gross Profit ratio for Apple Inc.

**Price / Tangible Book Value**

Price / Tangible Book Value is a ratio calculated using the following formula:**Price / Tangible Book Value = Closing Share Price / Tangible Book Value Per Share**

Below is an example for Apple Inc. as of August 23, 2024.

**Return on Assets %**

We calculate Return on Assets % by using the following formula:**Return on Assets % = (EBIT * 0.625) / ((Total Assets (t) + Total Assets (t-1)) / 2)**

The example below is for Apple Inc. as of April 1, 2023.

**Return on Capital %**

We use the following formula to calculate Return on Capital %:

**Return on Capital % = EBIT * (1-tax rate) / ((Total Capital (t) + Total Capital)(1-t))/2)**

The following example shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of April 1, 2023.

**Return on Equity %**

To calculate Return on Equity %, we use the following formula:**Return on Equity % = Earnings From Continuing Operations / ((Total Equity (t) + Total Equity (t-1)) / 2)**

The example below is for Apple Inc. as of April 1, 2023.

**Return on Invested Capital (ROIC)**

ROIC is calculated using the following formula:

**ROIC = NOPAT / Average Invested Capital**

Where;

**NOPAT =** EBIT less income tax expense.

**Invested Capital =** (Long-term debt + short-term debt + shareholder equity + current leases + long-term leases)

**Average Invested Capital =** (Invested Capital Y0 + Invested Capital Y-1) / 2

**RSI**

RSI is calculated using the following formula:

**RSI = 100 – (100 / [1 + {14-Day Average Gain / 14-Day Average Loss}])**

You can use our **My Screens** functionality to screen for stocks based on their RSI values. To do this, create a new screen and add RSI as a criterion.

**Selling General and Admin Expenses, Total**

Selling General and Admin Expenses, Total is a summary line item with the following components:

• Selling General and Admin Expenses

• Exploration / Drilling Costs

• Stock-Based Compensation (IS)

• Provision for Bad Debts

• Pre-Opening Cost

In our paid plans, you can create a custom Financial Analysis (**FA**) template and include this data item. For more information about this feature, please see this **article**.

**Shareholder Yield %**

Shareholder Yield % is based on three important components compared to the Market Capitalization:

**Dividend Yield %**— the amount of dividends paid to shareholders**Buyback Yield %**— the amount spent repurchasing shares. This may indicate that management believes a stock is undervalued**Debt Paydown Yield %**— the net change in long term debt over the trailing twelve months. Some investors consider that debt paydown is a way to enhance shareholder value by increasing the equity holder’s claim on the assets

You can find the Shareholder Yield % of a company in the **Dividend Snapshot**.

**Short Interest (% and Notional)**

Our Short Interest data is updated every 2 weeks with a 3-day delay. The data comes from the exchange. Short Interest data covers all stocks traded on US exchanges.

You can view a historical time series of Short Interest Notional and Short Interest % of Market Cap in the **G chart**.

**Short Term Investments**

Short Term Investments are a line item with the following components:

• Deposits at interest in securities

• Securities borrowed

• Cash and securities segregated

• Securities owned

• Securities purchased under agreements to resell

On Koyfin, this data item can be found under the Balance Sheet section of the Financial Analysis.

**Total Current Assets**

Total Current Assets is a line item with the following components:

• Total Cash and Sort Term Investments

• Total Receivables

• Inventory

• Prepaid Expenses

• Finance Division Loans and Leases, Short-Term

• Finance Division Other Current Assets, Total

• Other Current Assets, (Summary Subtotal)

The example below is for Apple Inc. as of September 30, 2023.

**Total Current Liabilities**

Total Current Liabilities is an essential financial indicator that provides valuable insights into a company's short-term financial obligations. It is a subtotal line item in the standard financial template and consists of various components:

• Accounts Payable, Total

• Accrued Expenses, Total

• Short-term Borrowings

• Current Portion of Long Term Debt/Capital Leases

• Finance Division Debt Current

• Finance Division Other Current Liabilities, Total

• Other Current Liabilities, Total

The following example shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of September 30, 2023.

**Total Debt**

Total Debt is a financial metric that measures the total amount of money a company owes to its creditors.

Total Debt consists of the following components:

• Short-term Borrowings

• Current Portion of Long-Term Debt

• Current Portion of Leases

• Long-Term Debt

• Long Term Leases

• Finance Div. Debt Current

• Finance Div. Debt Non-Curr.

The example below is for Apple Inc. as of September 25, 2021.

**Total Return and Price Change %**

Total Return is a metric that captures the full impact of dividends on the value of a stock or ETF, beyond just the changes in its market price. It is derived using the "adjusted price," a figure that adds dividends back to the stock's price at each distribution point, under the assumption these dividends are reinvested. This calculation combines the stock's Price Change and dividend payments to give a complete picture of its performance.

In Koyfin, Total Return can be analyzed using various features such as watchlists, graphs, and screeners.

The Historical Price Graph (G) displays both the Price Change and Total Return percentages as separate data series, allowing for a side-by-side comparison.

The Normalized Performance Graph (GM) shows the percentage change that represents the Total Return, calculated from the stock's or ETF's adjusted price history.

However, it's important to note that Koyfin does not compute Total Return for equity indices like the SPX, where the Normalized Performance Graph only displays Price Changes, excluding dividends. For an analysis inclusive of Total Return on an index similar to the SPX, the SPY ETF is a recommended alternative.

You can read more about Adjusted vs. Unadjusted prices **here**.

**Total Revenues**

Total Revenues is a line item comprised of the following components:

• Revenues

• Other Revenues, (Summary Subtotal)

The following example shows the calculation for Apple Inc. as of September 30, 2023.

**Total Revenues, CAGR**

The Total Revenues, CAGR data series shows the historical annualized growth rate:

**5 FY**: CAGR of the latest fiscal year vs. the FY 5 years ago.**1 FQ**: CAGR of the latest fiscal quarter value vs. the FQ 5 years ago.**1 TTM**: CAGR of the trailing 12-month value vs. the trailing 12-month value 5 years ago.

The calculation for Apple Inc.'s Total Revenues, CAGR as of September 24, 2022, is shown below.

To visualize the Total Revenues, CAGR of a company, you can refer to the **G chart**. The graph below provides an illustration of Total Revenues, CAGR values for Apple Inc., including 1Y TTM, 1Y FQ, and 5Y FY.

**Volatility**

Volatility is a measure of the statistical dispersion of the log returns for a given security or market index.

It is calculated as the standard deviation of the log price changes. You can take a look at this example **sheet** for more information.

You can add a column for Volatility in **My Watchlists**. The Volatility column will display the realized volatility over a specified period.

**Volume**

**Volume, Average**

The Average Volume is the average number of Shares that are traded on a daily basis over the last 10 days of trading.**Volume, Notional Value**

It is the $ amount (or other currency) which we calculate by multiplying Shares * Price.

**Volume, Shares**

The Volume is the number of Shares.

You can add the columns for Volume, Average, Volume, Notional Value, and Volume, Shares to your **watchlist** on Koyfin.

**Z-Score**

The Z-Score is calculated by dividing the 1D % Change by the Trailing 1-year Volatility. A Z-Score of 1 means the % Change today is equal to 1 Standard deviation relative to the past 1 year of daily Price change.

If you're interested in monitoring the Z-Score for various securities, you can add it as a column to your **watchlist**.